The Pentagon said that the United States troops are being sent to Saudi Arabia to defend American interests from "emergent credible threats".
The move comes amid heightened tensions with Iran over the safety of shipping lanes in the Gulf.
Saudi Arabia confirmed that King Salman had approved the move "to strengthen regional security and stability".
The kingdom hasn't yet hosted US forces since 2003 when they withdrew at the end of the war with Iraq.
The US presence in Saudi Arabia started with Operation Desert Storm in 1991, when Iraq invaded Kuwait.
The US also plans to send a squadron of F-22 stealth fighters to the base.
"This movement of forces provides an additional deterrent and ensures our ability to defend our forces and interests in the region from emergent, credible threats," a statement from US Central Command said.